With the financial support of the Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme
European Commission - Directorate General Home Affairs


More and more publications emerge about the human organ trade, however, not all publications are evidence -or research based. Many authors simply formulate an opinion, or phrase policies against it, without referring to actual, empirical data.

To guide you through the abundance of information that can be found about the various forms of organ trade, we have listed publications that are based on rigorous, scientific research and that we encountered during our literature study.

If we are missing important articles, please let us know.

A snapshot of publications based on scientific research
  • Ambagtsheer F, De Jong J, Bramer WM, Weimar W. On patients who purchase organs abroad. Am J Transplant. 2016 16(10):2800-15.
  • Ambagtsheer F, Zaitch D, Weimar W. The battle for human organs: Organ trafficking and transplant tourism in a global context. Global Crime. 2013;14(1):1-26
  • Ambagtsheer, F., Zaitch, D., Swaaningen, van R., Duijst, W. Zuidema, W., Weimar, W., Cross-border quest: The reality and legality of transplant tourism. Journal of Transplantation 2012:1-7
  • Ambagtsheer F, van Balen LJ, Duijst-Heesters WLJM, Massey EK, Weimar W. Reporting organ trafficking networks: a survey-based plea to breach the secrecy oath. Am J Transplant. 2015;15(7):1759-67.
  • Van Balen LJ, Ambagtsheer F, Ivanovski N, Weimar W. Interviews With Patients Who Traveled From Macedonia/Kosovo, The Netherlands, and Sweden for Paid Kidney Transplantations. Progress in Transplantation 2016;26(4):328-34.
  • Berglund S., and Lundin, S. ‘I had to leave’: Making Sense of Buying a Kidney Abroad. In: Gunnarson M., Svenaeus F, editors. The Body as a Gift, Resource, and Commodity: Exchanges Organs, Tissues and Cells in the 21st Century. Huddinge: Södertörn Studies in Practical Knowledge; 2012. p. 321–42
  • Budiani-Saberi D, Mostafa A. Care for commercial living donors: The experience of an NGO's outreach in Egypt. Transplant Int. 2011;24(4):317-23
  • Columb S. Excavating the Organ Trade: An Empirical Study of Organ Trading Networks in Cairo, Egypt. British Journal of Criminology. 2016:azw068.
  • Columb S. Beneath the organ trade: a critical analysis of the organ trafficking discourse. Crime, Law and Social Change. 2015;63(1-2):21-47.
  • Columb S. Disqualified Bodies: A Sociolegal Analysis of the Organ Trade in Cairo, Egypt. Law & Society Review. 2017;51(2):282-312.
  • Efrat A. The rise and decline of Israel's participation in the global organ trade: causes and lessons. Crime, Law and Social Change 2013:1-25
  • Fry-Revere, S. The Kidney Sellers: a journey of discovery in Iran. Carolina Academic Press (2014)
  • Gunnarson M, Lundin S. The Complexities of Victimhood: Insights from the Organ Trade. Somatechnics. 2015;5(1):32-51.
  • Lundin, S. Organ Economy. Organ Trafficking in Moldova and Israel. Public Understanding of Science, 2012: 221–246
  • Lundin S. Organs for Sale: An Ethnographic Examination of the International Organ Trade: Springer; 2016.
  • Mendoza RL. Colombia's organ trade: Evidence from Bogota and Medellin. J Public Health (Germany) 2010;18(4):375-84
  • Mendoza RL. Kidney black markets and legal transplants: Are they opposite sides of the same coin? Health Policy 2010;94(3):255-65
  • Mendoza RL. Price deflation and the underground organ economy in the Philippines. J Public Health (United Kingdom) 2011;33(1):101-7
  • Mendoza RL. Transplant Management from a Vendor's Perspective. Journal of Health Management. 2012;14(1):67-74
  • Moazam F, Zaman RM, Jafarey AM. Conversations with kidney vendors in Pakistan: An ethnographic study. Hast Cent Rep. 2009;39(3):29-44
  • Moniruzzaman M. "Living Cadavers" in Bangladesh: Bioviolence in the Human Organ Bazaar. Med Anthropol Q. 2012;26(1):69-91
  • Muraleedharan VR, Jan S, Ram Prasad S. The trade in human organs in Tamil Nadu: the anatomy of regulatory failure. Health Econ Policy Law. 2006;1(Pt 1):41-57
  • Naqvi SAA, Ali B, Mazhar F, Zafar MN, Rizvi SAH. A socioeconomic survey of kidney vendors in Pakistan. Transplant Int. 2007;20(11):934-9
  • Orr Z. International norms, local worlds: An ethnographic perspective on organ trafficking in the Israeli context. In: Weimar W, Bos MA, van Busschbach JJV, editors. Ethical, legal, and psychosocial aspects of transplantation: Global issues, local solutions. Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers; 2014. p. 39-49.
  • Rizvi SAH, Naqvi SAA, Zafar MN, Mazhar F, Muzaffar R, Naqvi R, et al. Commercial transplants in local Pakistanis from vended kidneys: A socio-economic and outcome study. Transplant Int. 2009;22(6):615-21
  • Sajjad I, Baines LS, Patel P, Salifu MO, Jindal RM. Commercialization of kidney transplants: A systematic review of outcomes in recipients and donors. Am J Nephrol. 2008;28(5):744-54
  • Sanal A. "Robin Hood" of techno-Turkey or organ trafficking in the state of ethical beings. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2004;28(3):281-309
  • Sanal A. New organs within us : transplants and the moral economy. Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press; 2011
  • Scheper-Hughes N. Mr Tati's holiday and João's safari - seeing the world through transplant tourism. Body and Society 2011;17(2-3):55-92
  • Scheper-Hughes N. Kidney kin: Inside the transatlantic transplant trade. Harvard International Review 2006;27(4):62-5
  • Turner L. Commercial organ transplantation in the Philippines. Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2009;18(2):192-6
  • Yea S. Trafficking in part(s): The commercial kidney market in a Manila slum, Philippines. Trafic humain et trafic d'organes: Le commerce des reins dans un bidonville de Manille aux Philippines. Global Social Policy 2010;10(3):358-76
  • Yousaf FN, Purkayastha B. ‘I am only half alive’: Organ trafficking in Pakistan amid interlocking oppressions. International Sociology. 2015;30(6):637-53.




International Symposium

21 November 2014

Europol, The Hague,The Netherlands

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